Modeling the hydroclimatology of the midwestern United States. Part 2: future climate
An ensemble of six 22-year numerical experiments was conducted to quantify the response of soil moisture to multiple climate change scenarios over the American Midwest. Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) was run using two surface physics schemes: Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme 1e (BATS1e); and two convective closure assumptions: Fritsch and Chappell and Arakawa and Schubert. Experiments were forced with a surrogate climate change scenario constructed using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 dataset and the ECHAM5 A1B climate change scenario. RegCM3-IBIS and RegCM3-BATS1e simulate increased two-meter air temperature and downward longwave radiation throughout the year under both climate change scenarios. While differences in shortwave radiation are relatively small; some model configurations and climate change scenarios produce additional precipitation, evapotranspiration, and total runoff during the spring and summer. Soil moisture is unchanged or increased throughout the growing season as enhanced rainfall offsets greater evaporative demand. Negligible drying in root zone soil moisture is found in all climate change experiments conducted, regardless of surface physics scheme, boundary conditions, or convective closure assumption.